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Do Patients Own Their Medical Records?

Do Patients Own Their Medical Records?

Your healthcare organization must ensure safe storage and usability when creating and processing medical data. Individuals have a right to request information related to their care at any time — but do patients own their medical records?

The question of ownership is complex and fraught with legal nuances, ethical considerations, and consequences for both patients and healthcare professionals. While the information in medical charts pertains to patients, healthcare institutions and practitioners typically produce, maintain, and store the physical charts.

This intricate dynamic raises several questions, including:

  • Does the patient have the ultimate claim to ownership as the subject of information? 
  • Does the healthcare provider, having invested resources in compiling and managing these records, retain the rights? 
  • What can a healthcare organization charge patients to access medical records?

These are some of the many issues we’ll address in this article. At ChartRequest, our experts help you understand the ins and outs of medical record ownership and the importance of achieving safe and reliable transfers.

What Is a Medical Chart?

Understanding what a medical chart is will be necessary for unpacking the question of ownership.

A medical chart is a comprehensive record of a patient’s health history and clinical interactions. It is a vital tool for physicians and nurses as it facilitates a patient’s healthcare journey. Medical charts help inform individuals about future treatment decisions and ensure continuity of care. 

Here are some of the details you might find on a physical or electronic record:

  • Health History: Details of a patient’s past and present health conditions, allergies, surgeries, and medication history.
  • Diagnoses: Documentation of all diagnoses made during a patient’s health visit.
  • Treatment Plans: Comprehensive information about treatment strategies, including medications prescribed, surgical procedures performed, and recommended therapies.
  • Progress Notes: Observations and annotations made by healthcare professionals regarding a patient’s condition and response to treatment.
  • Medical Test Results: Records of results from various blood tests, imaging studies, and pathology reports.

The significance of medical charts extends beyond individual patient care. They are crucial for medical research and public health initiatives. Hence, the debate over their ownership has personal implications and poses broader social concerns.

Creating a Medical Chart: The Path Toward Ownership

Let’s unravel the process of creating a medical record to understand ownership rights better. 

Creating a medical chart is a collaborative effort involving many healthcare professionals, each contributing valuable information based on their interactions with the patient. 

However, the ownership implications linked to this process are far from straightforward. Review the three key elements that contribute to the creation of a medical chart:

1: Initial Patient Consultation

The inception of a medical chart begins with the first encounter between a patient and their healthcare provider. Physicians record a patient’s chief complaints, medical history, and other relevant details during this stage. These notes form the foundation of the typical medical record, guiding all future clinical actions. 

Here is where the question, “Do patients own their medical records?” comes up again.

While initial notes and annotations are essential to the medical chart, ownership of this record is a matter of debate. On one hand, the patient is the source of the information, but the physician compiles the records — suggesting a shared ownership.

On the other hand, patients may argue that they have the sole ownership rights since the data pertains to their health. Personal health information is sensitive and protected by HIPAA privacy regulations. Consequently, a patient may be within reason to argue that the data belongs to them.

Still, healthcare providers contribute their expertise and time in interpreting the information, which provides another valid counterargument. As such, the initial patient consultation may set the stage for additional questions and disputes.

2: Documentation of Treatment

Once a healthcare provider makes their initial assessment, they formulate a treatment plan, which they document in the medical record. This documentation includes the prescribed therapies, medications, and potential interventions a patient should expect. The ownership rights, in this case, can be more controversial. 

While the patient is actively involved in the treatment process, the healthcare provider is the one who devises the plan, suggesting that they might hold the ownership rights to these records.

However, from the patient’s perspective, the treatment plan stems from their personalized needs and compliance with the proposed course of action. Therefore, they could assert a claim of ownership over these records. Additionally, considering the potential impact of these records on their future care, patients might insist on having ownership rights to maintain control.

3: Ongoing Updates

The medical chart is a dynamic document, constantly updated with the patient’s health status, response to treatment, and newly diagnosed conditions. 

The physicians mostly record these updates, indicating their active role in maintaining and enhancing the chart. Therefore, healthcare providers may assert ownership rights over these records, considering the intellectual input and resources invested.

What Does the Law Say About Medical Record Ownership?

Patients and physicians can endlessly argue over medical record ownership. Regardless, local laws and regulations provide legitimate conclusions to the debate.

Data ownership can be tricky, as no specific individual or entity can “claim” data. However, ownership over a physical medical chart is a different question.

According to J Law Med Ethics (2019), all 50 states in the U.S. agree that medical providers own tangible medical records. This standard applies to both paper and electronic copies. Furthermore, 21 states have statutes explicitly confirming that providers own this data.

Limitations to ownership rights exist. For example, healthcare providers must comply with HIPAA guidelines and ethics governing patient privacy and protected health information (PHI) disclosure.

So, do patients own their medical records? According to most laws, no. 

However, they may still have control over what happens to their information. We will discuss this control more in the following sections.

Maintaining an In-House Medical Record

As we venture deeper into medical chart ownership, discussing how a provider should maintain an in-house medical record is crucial. This practice requires the cooperation of healthcare institutions and physicians keeping and managing a patient’s medical records within their systems. 

Maintaining records in a secure location ensures seamless consolidation and access to patient data for healthcare providers. It also intensifies the debate about control and data privacy.

Here are some critical facets of maintaining an in-house medical record:

  • Data Security: A healthcare organization is responsible for ensuring the security of records, protecting them from unauthorized access or data breaches. Hacking and insider threats remain a danger to most modern facilities. Backing up electronic data and monitoring network activity is essential for protecting sensitive information.
  • Record Management: A healthcare provider has to maintain an organized and accurate record, updating it continually with new patient information. Failing to do so may cause disruptions in care that encourage patients to transfer their data to a different provider.
  • Accessibility: While kept in-house, the records should be easily accessible to the patients when required. This standard ensures that patients have control over communication, use of documents, and transfers when needed. 
  • Legal Compliance: A healthcare institution must comply with data privacy and protection laws, like the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). Violations could compromise an organization’s ownership over its patient records.

Some healthcare organizations do not have the storage space or workforce necessary to maintain records on-site. In these situations, many entrust the record storage and retrieval process to reputable third-party services, like ChartRequest. Off-site custodians must adhere to the same ethical and legal standards as hospitals and other medical facilities.

How Patients Can Request Medical Records From a Custodian

Navigating the process of accessing medical records can be challenging, particularly given the complexities surrounding ownership rights and privacy regulations. 

However, understanding the process can empower patients to take control of their healthcare data. This autonomy helps to facilitate informed decision-making and promotes effective communication with doctors. 

Let’s explore the steps one must take to request medical records legally:

1: Understanding Ownership Rights

The first step a patient must take to obtain medical records is understanding their ownership rights. These people are usually the first to ask, “Do patients own their medical records?”

Legislation like HIPAA grants patients the right to inspect and receive a copy of their medical records from most healthcare providers — despite not having direct ownership of these documents. HIPAA rights are subject to exceptions, such as information gathered for legal proceedings or specific psychiatric notes.

Understanding these rights can inform patients about what they can reasonably expect when requesting medical charts. In fact, privacy rules tend to lean in favor of the patient, preventing healthcare providers from deploying unnecessary barriers that prevent or delay the release of information upon authorized requests.

2: Filing a Request

Patients must submit a signed request form to their healthcare provider to request medical records. Individuals can usually submit their applications as a written letter, though some institutions may require them to complete unique forms.

Requests should include:

  • The patient’s full name and contact information
  • The type of records the patient wants to access 
  • The preferred format for the documents (electronic or paper)
  • The date range for the records, if applicable

After submitting the request, healthcare staff may provide a waiting period as they process the application. Some requests may take several days or weeks to complete, depending on the bandwidth of the provider’s workforce. Still, HIPAA rules dictate that a healthcare provider must respond to a request for information within 30 days or be subject to penalties.

3: Managing the Received Records

Once patients receive their medical records, they should carefully review the data for accuracy. Patients should request that their healthcare providers amend inaccurate information if they find any discrepancies or omissions. 

It’s also crucial to secure these records appropriately, given the sensitive nature of their information. Consider digitizing paper records for more accessible storage or using a secure cloud-based service for safeguarding electronic records. Proper records management can facilitate better control over one’s healthcare experience.

Protected Health Information Rights of Access

Do patients own their medical records if other entities — like the government — can access them?

In this context, the rights of access vary among different stakeholders. It is crucial to understand these distinctions to ensure that custodians respect and uphold the rights of all parties. Here is a list of individuals or entities with the right to access medical records they may not own directly:


As mentioned, patients typically have the right to access and inspect copies of their medical records. They also have the right to request amendments to inaccurate or incomplete information. These rights exist on the principle of patient autonomy and informed consent, allowing patients to have a say in their healthcare decisions.


Physicians and their corresponding healthcare organizations legally own the physical medical record. As a result, they generally have access to all patient data necessary to provide safe and effective care. However, they must respect confidentiality and only access and use the records required to complete a task.

In HIPAA terms, physicians understand this standard as the Minimum Necessary Rule. A doctor cannot release more data from PHI than necessary to reduce the risk of unauthorized disclosure.

Healthcare Employees

Many healthcare employees have access to medical records as part of their roles. These positions may include:

  • Nurses
  • Pharmacists
  • Administrative staff
  • Record specialists
  • Assistants and secretaries

Nevertheless, these workers have a shared obligation to maintain confidentiality and only access and use patient information on a need-to-know basis. An organization needs to train its staff to understand medical record ownership and care responsibilities. This way, every employee has the tools required to avoid financially devastating violations.


Attorneys may access medical records relevant to a legal case, such as personal injury claims or healthcare fraud investigations. They must obtain consent from the patient or a court order to access these records. Attorneys don’t own patient medical records but may have the right to use them when representing clients.


Courts can order the release of medical records for proceedings, given that they are relevant to the case. It is, however, dependent on the jurisdiction and the case’s specific circumstances.

Ownership may seem arbitrary in circumstances like these. However, courts usually order certain records to return to a provider’s custody or be destroyed upon the case’s conclusion.

The Government

Certain government agencies have the right to access medical records for public health surveillance, investigations, or audits. For example, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) can access these documents in case of a workplace injury or lawsuit.

However, these agencies must always protect the privacy of these records and only use the information for lawful purposes.

Does a Deceased Person Own Their Medical Records?

When a patient passes away, the ownership of their medical records can become a complex issue. Generally, the deceased person does not retain ownership of their medical records. Instead, the healthcare provider remains the custodian of information, subject to specific legal and ethical obligations. 

Relatives or the deceased’s legal representative may request access to these records. Healthcare providers usually grant access in accordance with privacy laws and company policies. It’s important to note that laws vary by country and state, so the specifics depend on jurisdiction.

Penalties for Breaking HIPAA Privacy Rules

Do patients own their medical records if their healthcare provider violates HIPAA? Ownership seldom transfers to the patient in these situations. However, violating HIPAA privacy rules can lead to severe consequences for healthcare organizations, ranging from monetary fines to criminal charges. 

The federal government designed these penalties to protect patients’ private medical information and encourage healthcare providers, their associates, and other entities bound by HIPAA to comply with the regulation’s stringent privacy and security standards. Here are some penalties to consider:

  • Corrective Action Without Fine: In some cases, the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) may guide the offending organization to correct the violation without imposing a fine.
  • Tier 1 Violation ($100 – $50,000 fine per violation): Violations that the entity was unaware of and could not realistically avoid with reasonable care.
  • Tier 2 Violation ($1,000 – $50,000 fine per violation): Violations that the entity should be aware of but could not avoid even with a reasonable amount of care.
  • Tier 3 Violation ($10,000 – $50,000 fine per violation): Violations suffered due to “willful neglect” of HIPAA rules in cases where a provider attempts to correct the violation.
  • Tier 4 Violation ($50,000 fine per violation): Violations of HIPAA Rules due to willful neglect and providers not attempting to correct the violation.

It’s essential to note that repeated or uncorrected violations can compound these penalties quickly, leading to maximum fines of $1.5 million per year. OCR also adjusts these fines for inflation, bringing the true cap to over $2.2 million.

Furthermore, while these financial penalties can be severe, perhaps the most significant consequence of a HIPAA violation is damaging an organization’s reputation. Trust is key in the healthcare industry, and frequent violations may lead to authorities’ indefinite confiscation of sensitive data.

Benefits of Owning Patient Medical Records

Owning medical records can bring various advantages, as it empowers patients and providers to take control of care coordination and nurture quality health outcomes.

1: Enhanced Patient Autonomy

Having access to medical records bolsters patient autonomy. This benefit can lead to increased engagement in the healthcare experience and encourage a proactive approach towards health management. 

Informing patients about their medical history, past treatments, and test results helps you guide them toward better living and promote a lasting professional relationship.

2: Improved Patient-Physician Communication

Possession of medical records encourages better overall communication with your patients. Amending medical history, medications, allergies, and other vital information can help you provide precise and personalized care. 

Additionally, this advantage enables you to provide detailed information at any time of the year, contributing to a more holistic care strategy.

3: Continuity of Care

Owning medical records can significantly contribute to continuity of care, particularly when patients change healthcare providers or require care from different specialists. Access to their records allows you to share medical history with colleagues swiftly and accurately, eliminating the risk of missing or incorrect information.

Do patients own their medical records if their charts are fully digital?

In recent years, data indicates that more patients are requesting release of information than ever before. The rise of digital health software and services — like ChartRequest — significantly contributes to this shift and the increasing emphasis on patient-centered care. 

Access to personal health information empowers seamless data exchange involving multiple healthcare providers. It also helps custodians feel secure in their compliance and security policies.

Still, patients cannot claim ownership over these resources.

Can You Request Your Medical Records From a Previous Healthcare Provider?

Patients have the right to request their medical records from their previous healthcare providers. HIPAA protects this right in the United States, allowing patients to obtain a physical or electronic copy of their medical charts from any provider, with few exceptions. This standard includes physicians, hospitals, pharmacies, and nursing homes.

However, you should note that while patients have the right to obtain a copy, the original record typically begins and ends with the custodian. Also, while HIPAA ensures this right, the actual process of collecting these records may vary from provider to provider. 

Some may provide this service for free. However, creating copies of a medical record requires money and resources. HIPAA allows healthcare providers to bill patients for these requests within reason.

All copies of medical records are under the healthcare provider’s legal ownership.

How To Organize Medical Records for Patient Requests

Proper organization of medical records is vital to ensure that healthcare providers can respond to patients within the mandated 30-day deadline. Following specific strategies can make the process efficient, reducing the turnaround time and enhancing patient satisfaction.

1: Identify Essential Components of Medical Records for Verification

The first step in organizing medical records for patient requests is identifying the key components that should already exist in their charts. This strategy helps you verify the request and eliminate the risk of unauthorized access.

A medical chart verification request may include:

  • The patient’s name
  • The patient’s date of birth
  • Membership login credentials
  • Billing information
  • Address
  • And more

2: Adopt a Systematic Approach to Archiving Records

Establishing a systematic approach to archiving medical records can streamline the process of responding to patient requests. Consider the following steps:

  • Categorize records based on the type of information (e.g., diagnostic tests, treatments, prescriptions)
  • Arrange records chronologically to provide a clear timeline of the patient’s treatment strategy
  • Implement a digital archiving system for easier retrieval and record-sharing
  • Regularly update the records to ensure the most recent information is readily available
  • Ensure the privacy and security of the documents in compliance with HIPAA regulations

3: Use Digital Tools To Enhance Efficiency

The advent of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and other digital tools can significantly enhance the efficiency of organizing and retrieving medical data. They enable quick access to patient records.

For instance, ChartRequest offers a Full-Service release of information package that does all the hard work on your behalf. You won’t need to worry about learning new software or procedures by handing the record retrieval process off to our professionals.

Enjoy Secure and Speedy Record Transfers With ChartRequest

Investing in secure and efficient software for medical record exchange is crucial in the healthcare sector. ChartRequest is a five-star service that prioritizes security and speed. Our team ensures that medical records comply with HIPAA regulations, maintaining patient confidentiality and trust. 

Our simple software’s speed and ease of use save valuable time, allowing healthcare providers like you to focus on delivering high-quality care instead of managing paperwork. It also equips patients with the control and access they need to view their health records without worry.

In conclusion, ChartRequest is your go-to solution for a swift, secure, and seamless medical record exchange process. Our emphasis on security and efficiency makes our platform a valuable tool for healthcare providers and patients. 

Do patients own their medical records? Find out more by contacting us at ChartRequest.

Schedule a software demo today to save time and money on the retrieval process.

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